The antiviral effects of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition

Most of us wander around our lovely planet never fully understanding how atoms, electrons, matter, and energy function. It’s not because we’re not interested, it’s because it’s complicated, and a bit intimidating. No wonder, the processes that create and support life are nothing short of miracles.

All matter is electrical. It's not visible to the naked eye and you can't feel it, but up to 40 per cent of your body's energy goes into supplying the microscopic sodium-potassium pump with the energy it needs. The pump is constantly doing its job in every cell of all animals and humans. It works much like a small battery which, among other things, maintains the sodium balance which is crucial to keep muscles and nerves working. 

 

Electrolytes

Early studies have reported various electrolyte abnormalities at admission in patients who progress to the severe form of "the current virus."

Because the GI tract and kidneys play an essential role in fluid and electrolyte balance in the body, disturbance can lead to an imbalance of fluid and electrolytes. Impaired fluid and electrolyte balance can be dangerous if left unchecked.

In science, electrolytes are one of the main components of electrochemical cells. Electrolytes are essential minerals—like sodium, calcium, and potassium—that are vital to many key functions in the body. They're often talked about in association with dehydration and mentioned in ads for sports drinks that promise to replace electrolytes lost through sweat.

In physiology, the primary ions of electrolytes are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (Cl−), hydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and hydrogen carbonate (HCO3−).

All known multicellular lifeforms require a subtle and complex electrolyte balance between the intracellular and extracellular environments. These affect and regulate the hydration of the body as well as blood pH, and are critical for nerve and muscle function.

“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency, and vibration.” Nikola Tesla

Sodium is the main electrolyte found in extracellular fluid and potassium is the main intracellular electrolyte.

ReverseFX contains not only Shilajit for minerals but also has a very special salt that has been extracted from Salt Lake.  Salt lake is considered to be a “Hypersaline lake”. It is RICH with minerals/electrolytes!

Another tip from researchers for those who may be suffering with symptoms is to gargle with salt water. Researchers found that 95% of those who gargled with salt water and used nasal irrigation reduced their illness by 1.9 days.

 

Importance of the Sodium Potassium Pump

Right now, nerve impulses are traveling throughout your body. None of these impulses would be possible without the aid of the sodium potassium pump (NaK pump). The sodium potassium pump is a specialized type of transport protein found in your cell membranes. The cell membrane is the semi-permeable outer barrier of many cells. The NaK pump's job is to move potassium ions into the cell while simultaneously moving sodium ions out of the cell.

This process is important for a variety of reasons. For example, in nerve cells, the sodium potassium pump creates gradients of both sodium and potassium ions. Gradients are formed when you have an area of higher concentration next to an area of lower concentration. These gradients are then used to transmit electrical signals that travel along nerves. Without this process, your nerve cells wouldn't function.

Nerve cells aren't the only place the sodium potassium pump is used. In fact, the function of this pump underlies most cellular processes. For example, the pump is used by your kidneys to maintain Na (sodium) and K (potassium) balances in the body. It also plays a role in maintaining blood pressure and controls cardiac contractions. If your heartbeat is steady, thank the sodium potassium pump.

The classical role of Na,K-ATPase (sodium/potassium) pumps are to maintain the electrolyte homeostasis of the cells by pumping positively charged ions in and out of the cell using the energy obtained from (Adenosine triphosphate) ATP.

 

The Antiviral Effects of Na+/K+-ATPase Inhibition

Na,K-ATPase function can be directly affected by both DNA and RNA viruses affecting lung fluid clearance.

Viruses are intracellular parasites whose life cycle is dependent on hijacking cellular functions like protein synthesis and intracellular transport of molecules to promote their replication and spreading. 

The infection begins with the attachment of the viral particle to surface-exposed cellular molecules and their entry to the cell by endocytosis. (glycoimmunology/clathrin)

Targeting host cell components such as Na,K-ATPase is a very promising antiviral strategy in order to minimize the resistance to antiviral therapeutics, and has been shown to be effective in a broad spectrum of viral species.

Prunella vulgaris (Self-Heal), is rich in ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and their glycoside derivatives may be adequate sources for inhibition on Na+/K+-ATPase according to studies.

Licorice has also been shown in research to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase pumps.

Both are found in ReverseFX!

In addition, ouabain (cardiac glycoside) suppresses RNA viral replication via augmenting a Na +/K +-ATPase-dependent PI3K_PDK1 axis signaling. 

 

Ouabain

Ouabain (from 'arrow poison') is a plant derived toxic substance that was traditionally used as an arrow poison in eastern Africa for both hunting and warfare. Ouabain is a cardiac glycoside and in lower doses, can be used medically to treat hypotension and some arrhythmias. It acts by inhibiting the Na/K-ATPase, also known as the sodium-potassium ion pump.

The Safer Alternative

Ouabain is a steroid hormone that binds to and inhibits the plasma membrane Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump). It is a cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin.

The compound rhamnose has been isolated from Sea Buckthorn and is structurally similar to D-Mannose. 

D-Mannose and rhamnose (Sea Buckthorn) have a certain synergy about them because they work almost on pathways in the body. 

Sea Buckthorn also has a compound called isorhamnetin which possess antiviral potential against RNA viruses. 

Both D-Mannose and Seabuckthorn are in ReverseFX!

Another ouabain/cardiac glycoside modulator can be found in Tongkat Ali. Results revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, protein and cardiac glycosides in the extracts of Tongkat Ali, which will be going in ButterflyFX.


Ion Transport

In biology, a transporter is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a biological membrane to accomplish many different biological functions including, cellular communication, maintaining homeostasis, energy production, etc.

The number one gene to target for ion transport is called SCNN1A, which involves the Na+/K+-ATPase pump.

 

SCNN1A 

SCNN1A plays an essential role in electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis, but also in airway surface liquid homeostasis, which is important for proper clearance of mucus. 

It controls the reabsorption of sodium in kidney, colon, lung and eccrine sweat glands and also plays a role in taste perception.

Haven’t we heard about loss of taste recently? How about fluid buildup in the lungs?

Among its related pathways is CFTR-dependent regulation of ion channels in Airway Epithelium. (More on this later)

In order to target SCNN1A for therapeutic intervention we must control the function of the upstream pathway which involves a gene called CSNK2A1.

CSNK2A1 controls SCNN1A.

 

THE HOT SPOTS 

Hot spots are interlacing protein-protein interactions that control thousands of genes. In other words, for example, if we researched thousands of genes and tracked them all upstream they might ALL be controlled, or influenced heavily, by the same gene. That’s a HOT SPOT. We refer to this as “pattern recognition”.

Targeting genetic hot spots has UNLIMITED therapeutic potential!!!

 

CSNK2A1, SIRT1, and CFTR

 

CSNK2A1

Casein Kinase 2 Alpha 1 (CSNK2A1) is considered one of the “hot spot” within the 20,000 genes we have because of how frequently it appears.

CSNK2A1 regulates numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis and transcription, as well as viral infections.

During viral infection, it phosphorylates various proteins involved in the viral life cycles of EBV, HSV, HBV, HCV, HIV, CMV and HPV.

It regulates transcription by direct phosphorylation of RNA polymerases I, II, III and IV. Also phosphorylates and regulates numerous transcription factors including Hsp90, NF-kappa-B, STAT1, CREB1, IRF1, IRF2, ATF1, ATF4, SRF, MAX, JUN, FOS, MYC and MYB.

Also, this gene is required for p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis. TP53 is the “Guardian of the Genome”. Our circadian rhythm also depends on this gene for its interaction with the CLOCK gene. 

 

ReverseFX has Pomegranate (Ellagic acid), Emodin (Sea buckthorn), and Resveratrol, which all have been shown in research to modulate this gene.

Consequently, SIRT1 regulates CSNK2A1.

SIRT1

SIRT1 is involved with reactions to stressors, and longevity.

Studies show that SIRT1 participates in inflammatory cells that play an important role in virus-induced asthma exacerbations. Moreover, several models have demonstrated relationships between viral infection and SIRT1. Therefore, targeting SIRT1 is a novel strategy that may be effective for treating virus-induced asthma exacerbations in the future.

SIRT1 activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease as shown in research.

SIRT1 plays important roles in different types of physiological processes including aging, metabolism, apoptosis and neurogenesis, and has been linked to many pathological processes such as cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and various kinds of viral infections.

High levels of SIRT1 expression acts as a protective mechanism against disease-related conditions.

ReverseFX contains Resveratrol and Pomegranate. Both upregulate SIRT1 which also simultaneously increases NAD+. 

 

CFTR

Chronic airway diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. So, if you want to control inflammation and fluid balance in the lung, targeting CFTR is VITAL! 

CTFR helps regulate inflammatory cytokines and fluid buildup in the lungs.

CFTR is a type of Na+-K+-2Cl− (sodium-potassium-chloride) pump and works as a negative feedback loop with Na+/K+-ATPase pumps. 

Viruses can cause a major complication of lung injury and inflammation and is defined as accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lungs leading to impaired diffusion of respiratory gases.

Lung fluid balance across the alveolar epithelial barrier protects the distal airspace from excess fluid accumulation and is mainly regulated by active sodium transport and Cl− absorption.

Acute respiratory virus infections predispose the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung to chronic bacterial colonization, which contributes to high mortality.

CFTR is expressed on the apical membrane of most epithelial cells and defective CFTR leads to disturbances in the electrolyte balance in secretory epithelia. This negatively affects the function of epithelial organs, including the lungs, intestine, and pancreas.

An impaired innate antimicrobial defense in epithelial cells, as demonstrated in cells from the lung, may contribute to excessive virus replication. 

In other words, disturbances in the electrolyte balance may contribute to excessive virus replication. 

Several studies have shown that CFTR is expressed by many immune cells.

CFTR has been shown to be is a negative regulator of NFkappaB (major inflammatory gene) mediated innate immune response. Data suggest that CFTR is a negative regulator of NFkappaB mediated innate immune response and its localization to lipid rafts is involved in control of inflammation.

Glyco-immune CFTR Function

Glycoimmunology directly impacts the function of CFTR. 

D-Mannose, N-Acetylglucosamine, and Bladderwrack to the rescue!

N-glycosylation is initiated by the addition of Mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, and Fucose (Bladderwrack) to an asparagine residue.

N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of an oligosaccharide, a carbohydrate consisting of several sugar molecules, sometimes also referred to as glycan, to a nitrogen atom (the nitrogen of an asparagine residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation.

N-glycosylation is thought to be critical for plasma membrane expression of glycoproteins by enhancing protein folding, trafficking, and stability and studies show that they enhance the productive folding and conformational stability of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

The adaptation process of proper protein folding in CFTR is also assisted by both Calnexin and Heat shock Proteins (e.g., Hsp70 and Hsp90). 

Both these heat shock proteins require Ginger and Ashwagandha while Calnexin requires Calcium. 

Aside from all this, research indicates that certain compounds have the ability to assist the function of CFTR. 

They are:

  • Tannic acid (Prunella vulgaris)
  • Apigenin (Ashwagandha)
  • Chloride ion (Shilajit + Salt)
  • Genistein (Kudzu)

As you can see…we’ve done the homework so you don’t have to!

ReverseFX – A [R]evolution in Self-Care!

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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

 

Sources:

https://www.gaia.com/article/electric-universe-theory-the-science-models-and-controversy

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2021/6667047/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32266828/

https://www.pharmalive.com/salt-water-vs-covid-19/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolyte

https://study.com/academy/lesson/sodium-potassium-pump-definition-function-importance.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121263/

https://www.nature.com/articles/aps201061

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30053394/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhamnose

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-L-rhamnosidase

https://hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0015224

https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210419/Plant-derived-compound-isorhamnetin-may-have-antiviral-potential-against-SARS-CoV-2.aspx

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S101836471400041X

https://pathcards.genecards.org/card/ion_channel_transport

https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SCNN1A

https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/scnn1a/

https://pathcards.genecards.org/card/cftr-dependent_regulation_of_ion_channels_in_airway_epithelium_(norm_and_cf)

https://string-db.org/cgi/network?taskId=bDUIlH98YEdn&sessionId=bYxy2vL6H5BN

https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CSNK2A

https://string-db.org/cgi/network?taskId=b8Iv1vGFQlHh&sessionId=blVkkjVgwCjS

https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SIRT1

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https://actaneurocomms.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2051-5960-2-3

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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19247502/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41423-020-0499-3

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https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CFTR&keywords=cftr#drugs_compounds

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