ReverseFX and the fungus among us

Mold, the Immune System, Glycoimmunology, & ReverseFX

Mold is everywhere, and everyone breathes in mold spores. Mold is very common in homes and buildings.

One 2017 study found mold in every public building studied, with an average of about 14 instances of mold per building.

Another 2012 review  involving 31 European countries found mold in 1 in 6 homes. The author noted that the prevalence of mold may vary greatly depending on the regional climate.

Most people regularly breathe in mold spores without experiencing any health complications. However, people with certain health conditions may be at risk of a lung infection or other infections from inhaling certain types of mold.

You may be at a higher risk of these illnesses if you have conditions such as:

  • asthma
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • sarcoidosis
  • compromised immune system, including people who take corticosteroids or have HIV
  • cystic fibrosis
  • tuberculosis

Mold allergies occur when your immune system overreacts to certain types of mold, which your body considers to be an allergen. This can result in symptoms such as sneezing and nasal congestion. 

Touching or inhaling mold spores can cause allergy-like symptoms such as:

  • runny nose and congestion
  • eye irritation
  • sneezing
  • coughing
  • sore throat
  • skin rash
  • headache
  • lung irritation
  • wheezing 

Like any allergy, mold allergy symptoms are triggered by an overly sensitive immune system response. When you inhale tiny, airborne mold spores, your body recognizes them as foreign invaders and develops allergy-causing antibodies to fight them.

Exposure to mold spores can cause a reaction right away, or the reaction can be delayed.

Complications

Most allergic responses to mold involve hay fever-type symptoms that can make you miserable but aren't serious. However, certain allergic conditions caused by mold are more severe. These include:

  • Mold-induced asthma. In people allergic to mold, breathing in spores can trigger an asthma flare-up. If you have a mold allergy and asthma, be sure that you have an emergency plan in case of a severe asthma attack.
  • Allergic fungal sinusitis. This results from an inflammatory reaction to fungus in the sinuses.
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This reaction to fungus in the lungs can occur in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis.
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This rare condition occurs when exposure to airborne particles such as mold spores causes lung inflammation. It can be triggered by exposure to allergy-causing dust at work.

Other problems caused by mold

Besides allergens, mold can pose other health risks to susceptible people. For example, mold can cause infections of the skin or mucous membranes.

Immune Response among People Exposed to Molds

Mold related illness is a controversial condition consisting of primarily non-specific symptoms such as headache, hallucinations, brain fog, rhinorrhea, fatigue, memory loss, and eye irritation. 

Occupants of mold-contaminated environments, particularly water-damaged buildings, develop symptoms that involve multiple organs and systems including the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system in addition to pulmonary diseases, allergy, and inflammatory reactions.

Mold illness is also called CIRS (Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome). CIRS is a condition that occurs when someone who is susceptible to mold has had significant mold exposure. A significant exposure could mean a large exposure for a short time or small exposures over a longer period of time.

Measurements of anti-IgG -IgE and -IgA antibodies had been used to evaluate mold exposure in patients with hypersensitivity symptoms.

Also, people with HLA genotypes (HLA-DR) may develop other inappropriate immune responses, including the formation of antibodies that lead to a gluten sensitivity, ulcerative colitis, blood clotting conditions, and more. Inflammatory pathways are continually activated, which increases inflammation in the body.

This inflammatory process can then become cyclical from repeated exposures to mold and/or because the mycotoxins are not cleared from the body in those who have the HLA genotype. 

In this situation there are 3 primary proinflammatory cytokines involved:

For these individuals, their immune system becomes dysregulated and a constant state of inflammation perpetuates. 

ReverseFX contains compounds that target TNF, IL6, and IL1B thus reducing the proinflammatory cytokine storms that take place. 

These compounds include but are not limited to:

  • Glycyrrhizin (Licorice)
  • Vinpocetine
  • Tanshinone IIA (Dan shen)
  • Vitamin C & E (Sea Buckthorn)
  • Kaempferol & Quercetin (Prunella Vulgaris)
  • Gingerol & Eugenol (Ginger)
  • Resveratrol
  • Propolis
  • Acetylcholine
  • Zinc
  • Ashwagandha
  • Chinese Skullcap
  • Rosmarinic acid (Prunella Vulgaris)
  • Emodin (Resveratrol & Sea Buckthorn)
  • Mannose
  • N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG) 
  • Resveratrol 
  • Pomegranate 

This immune dysregulation can create:

  • Lack of tolerance to environment - multiple chemical sensitivities Increasing reactions to foods - food sensitivities
  • Lack of self-tolerance - leading to autoimmunity (destruction of self-tissues)
  • Hormonal disturbances - blood sugar regulation issues, altered thyroid patterns and a whole host of hormonal imbalances

Immune function is compromised by overexposure to mold in several ways:

  • The disruption of proper cytokine production
  • Mast cell activation
  • Eliciting an allergic reaction within the body, leading to further illness

Mold and mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS)

Mast cells are found in bone marrow and around blood vessels. They play a key role in the function of the immune system. When the cells become activated at the wrong times and release improper amounts of the substances inside them, it can lead to mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS).

When mold is present in the body, mast cells release chemicals designed to attack and eliminate the pathogen. This can lead to extended inflammation if exposure is continuous. When the body is inflamed in response to mold exposure, unwanted symptoms and side effects can occur, and the immune system can be weakened.

Quick Recap

Mold toxicity dysregulates the immune/inflammatory response and may lead to: 

  • Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS)
  • CIRS (Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome)
  • Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (environmental illness)

Experts have shown that IgG, IgE, IgA, and HLA-DR are involved.

The good news is that mold sufferers have found MAJOR RELIEF with ReverseFX.

Here is the science behind why…

Fc Receptors 

An Fc receptor is a protein that REGULATES IgG, IgE, IgA antibodies and the “DREADED” HLA-DR gene.

In other words, control Fc receptors and you can control ALL of the aforementioned genes. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fc_receptor#/media/File:Fc_receptor_schematic.svg

The reason is because all of these genes involved with mold toxicity are involved in what’s called MHC mediated antigen processing and presentation.

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular bacteria, or any other foreign agent, such as mold.

An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells – including, among others, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, human platelets, and mast cells – that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.

Fc receptors as regulators of immune responses

Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens. Their activity stimulates phagocytic or cytotoxic cells to destroy microbes, or infected cells by antibody-mediated phagocytosis or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

Given that Hypersensitivity and Hyperactivation of immune cells is the root of autoimmune diseases, re-balancing the yin and the yang in immune regulation is the key to restoring more normal immune system functions. This balance could be achieved by modulating the coordination of Fc receptors between the activating and the inhibitory signals, raising the threshold for immune complex-triggered activation of immunocytes, and eventually attenuating inflammation and autoimmunity.

Inhibition of these Fc receptors are controlled by enzymes that remove phosphate groups from tyrosine residues; the phosphatases SHP-1, SHIP-1, and PTPN11/SHP2 inhibit signaling by Fc receptors. 

These are otherwise known as SHIP genes. 

https://www.frontiersin.org/files/Articles/445798/fimmu-10-00811-HTML-r1/image_m/fimmu-10-00811-g001.jpg

ReverseFX contains compounds that have been shown in research to target these SHIP genes and pathways.

Compounds in ReverseFX for SHP1/SHP2 modulation include:

  • Resveratrol (R)
  • Cryptotanshinone (Dan shen) (R)
  • Ashwagandha (R)
  • Licorice (R)
  • Beta glucan (R)

 

Fc receptors are also controlled by another gene called Spleen tyrosine Kinase (SYK) that also communicates with SHP1/SHP2 genes. 

https://d3i71xaburhd42.cloudfront.net/c14d18b19a075a55415f31810e9fa626947d8f33/17-Figure8-1.png

SYK participates in innate recognition of fungal and other microbial pathogens.

https://media.springernature.com/lw685/springer-static/image/art%3A10.1038%2Fnri2765/MediaObjects/41577_2010_Article_BFnri2765_Fig1_HTML.jpg

The dreaded HLA-DR gene, as mentioned earlier, and all the Fc receptors are involved with SYK/ZAP70/SHIP signaling pathways. (See image above)

This is a MAJOR reason why ReverseFX works so well to help mitigate the symptoms of mold toxicity.

Again, when you target SHIP/SYK signaling pathways you can control it ALL! [EMPHASIS ADDED]

Now, please take note of the gene in the image above called CLEC7A as we will be explaining it in detail later. 

Glycoimmunology

The study of glycans in the context of immunology is called glycoimmunology. Glycans, also called polysaccharides, are carbohydrate-based, long repeating chains of sugars made by all living organisms. Glycans are essential biomolecules serving structure, energy storage and system regulatory purposes.

The loss of any component of these bonded sugar molecules can result in dire consequences and incompatibility with life itself.

Changes in the patterns of glycans (sugar chains) may lead to significant alterations in immune pathway signaling, as these glycans are important sugars that serve as the first contact point of cell-cell, but also host-pathogen interactions.

Glycans are essential biomolecules for energy storage, system regulatory purposes, and play an essential role in various immune and inflammatory diseases. 

Their diversity exceeds that even of DNA, with up to 25,000 genes, RNA, with approximately 360,000 mRNA, as every known cell is covered in glycans (sugars) which is as essential to life as a genome. 

Also, their structures exceed by orders of magnitude the number of the proteins encoded by our genome, which can be up to 400,000 proteins. 

This makes glycoimmunology quintessentially supreme is all things health.

Interactions include the discrimination of self and non-self, antibody recognition, pathogen binding, modulation of immunity, infectious disease, inflammation, the binding of the hemagglutinin proteins, recognition of sialic acids, glycosaminoglycan synthesis, metastasis, cell adhesion, cell–cell signaling, intracellular transport, elimination of xenobiotics, sphingolipid metabolism, and more! Glycan patterns initiate immune reactions and virtually all cell surface receptors are glycoproteins. 

Glycan structures respond to environmental stimuli ranging from pH, ionic strength, hormonal stimulation, to inflammation, which aid in distinguishing health from disease, or self vs. non-self.

Glycoimmunology is the latest field of research in which the immune system uses specialized sugars in order to not only properly power itself but ensure that its functions are carried out properly. 

Foreign invaders can also reverse-hijack this and "hide" themselves with acidic sugars – but the makers of ReverseFX have taken this into account to help de-cloak these stealth pathogens that try to hide from the body's glycoimmunology functions that are normally utilized, giving your body and the immune system the edge over invaders and pathogens.

The Fungus Among Us 

Dectin genes are pattern-recognition receptors that play an important role in anti-fungal innate immunity.

Dectin-1/CLEC7A activation pathway

Dectin-1 is also called CLEC7A, a C-type lectin-like carbohydrate (sugar/polysaccharide) recognition gene.

Dectin-1 binds specifically to β-1,3 glucans and induces its own signaling pathway.

Beta-glucans are more complex in their structure and are polysaccharides, in fact, they are called β-D-glucose polysaccharides. Beta-glucans, while considered “sugars”, are quite different than simple sugars, such as sucrose, honey, cane sugar, or other sweeteners.  

So β-1,3 glucans encompass the idea behind Glycoimmunology, as previously mentioned. 

After binding to its ligand, Dectin-1 is phosphorylated by a non-receptor tyrosinase kinase Src. 

SYK is then activated and induces the CARD9-Bcl10-Malt1 complex. This complex mediates the activation of NF-κB and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. (See images below)

https://www.invivogen.com/sites/default/files/invivogen/resources/img-reviews/invivogen-dectin.jpg

https://d3i71xaburhd42.cloudfront.net/60c8f5b70aebf682fcc99e9ea0759d40c033a480/3-Figure1-1.png

D-Mannose also supports these genes because of Mannose Binding Lectin. (See image above)

C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are powerful pattern-recognition receptors that discern ‘self’ and ‘non-self’ in our body and protect us from invasive pathogens by mediating immune recognition and response.

Both MBL (Mannose Binding Lectin), and Dectin genes are C-Type Lectin genes. The “C” stand for carbohydrate, which essentially means sugar (glycoimmunology). 

Of all the pathogen recognition receptor families, C-type lectin receptor (CLR)-induced intracellular signal cascades are indispensable for the initiation and regulation of antifungal immunity.

Fungal Recognition

The pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the fungal cell wall are crucial for the initiation of innate immune responses against fungal pathogens. The fungal cell wall is predominantly composed of carbohydrate polymers interspersed with glycoproteins. 

The three major components, found in almost all fungi, are β-glucans, which are anchored in the inner core of the cell wall, chitin, which is a robust β-1,4-linked homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNac) located in the inner cell wall, and mannans (D-mannose), which are localized in the outer layer of the fungal yeast cell wall. 

In laymen’s terms, in order to mitigate mold/fungal invasiveness glycoimmunology is at play.

The compounds needed are D-Mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, and β-glucans.

The major CLRs that are recognized to be involved in antifungal immune responses are Dectin-1, Dectin-2, Dectin-3, MR, Mincle, and DC-SIGN.

Again, the engagement of Dectin-1 by β-1,3-glucans induces the activation of Src protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). Src phosphorylates the single cytoplasmic ITAM-like domain of Dectin-1, which subsequently results in the recruitment and activation of SYK.

Therefore, by targeting Spleen Tyrosine Kinase we can assist the body in the REVERSESAL of mold toxicity. 

Compounds that target SYK in ReverseFX include:

  • Resveratrol (R)
  • Dan Shen (R)
  • Ginger (R)
  • Licorice (R)
  • Chinese skullcap (R)

 Quick Recap

Targeting These Genes Reverses the Impact of Mold

  • TNF 
  • IL6 
  • IL1B
  • SHIP 1/2
  • SYK (Spleen Tyrosine Kinase) 
  • Dectin/CLEC7A

Diseases associated with CLEC7A include Aspergillosis and Candidiasis, Familial, 4. Among its related pathways are Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways and CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling

The DECTIN1/CLEC7A Gene is a lectin that functions as pattern recognizing receptor (PRR) specific for beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked glucans.

CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling is regulated by NFKB2. (R)

The NFkB complex is expressed in numerous cell types and functions as a central activator of genes involved in inflammation and immune function. NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis.

Compounds for NFKB2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, Tocris, and Novoseek:

  • Glycyrrhizin (Licorice)
  • Emodin (Resveratrol & Sea Buckthorn)
  • Tanshinone IIA (Dan shen)
  • Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (Propolis)
  • Kaempferol (Prunella Vulgaris, Nattokinase)

Beta-Glucans, the Immune System, and Mold

The properties of β-Glucans may help in recovery from mold-related illness. β-Glucans display various biological activities, including anti-tumor and anti-infective activities.

Decades of studies have shown that beta-glucans act as immunomodulator agents, meaning they trigger a cascade of events that help to regulate the immune system, making it more efficient. Specifically, beta-glucans stimulate the activity of macrophages, which are versatile immune cells that identify, ingest, and demolish invading pathogens and stimulate other immune cells to attack. In mold-related illnesses and chronic candidiasis, being able to mount an effective defense against these invaders is part of helping the body become strong enough biochemically to protect, defend, and REVERSE symptoms.

Studies show that the most effective beta-glucan used for immune purposes is extracted from the yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) as Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan, which is precisely what we have in ReverseFX.

If you are anyone you know has suffered or is currently suffering from mold toxicity the ReverseFX has got all the right ingredients needed to reverse engineer.

Shop now and stock up!

If you see the value in our amazing formulation you can sign up as an affiliate and when you share ReverseFX with your friends and family you can earn

Sign up as an affiliate today!

https://reversefx.com/pages/affiliate-sign-up

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Sources:

https://www.healthline.com/health/mold-in-house#symptoms-of-exposure

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mold-allergy/symptoms-causes/syc-20351519

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802005/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fc_receptor

https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=HLA-DRB1&keywords=HLA-DR#pathways_interactions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_histocompatibility_complex

https://www.nature.com/articles/nri2206

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00811/full

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4019044/

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Fc-receptor-targeted-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-Hogarth-Pietersz/c14d18b19a075a55415f31810e9fa626947d8f33

https://www.nature.com/articles/nri2765

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK453034/

https://www.invivogen.com/review-dectin1#:~:text=Dectin%2D1%20is%20a%20recently,specific%20receptor%20for%20%CE%B2%2Dglucans.

https://www.sinusitiswellness.com/immunomodulating-effects-of-beta-glucans-and-their-use-for-mold-sufferers/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17895634/

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/C-type-lectin-receptor-mediated-immune-recognition-Li-Liu/f5dcb9d8345cbbeead2b19bd55e56dfe6d2c55a9

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00123/full

https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CLEC7A

https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=NFKB2

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