ReverseFX® and food allergies

Were you born with food allergies? What controls food allergies?

The takeaway is this…

The same genes that trigger Autoimmune reactions via Viral and pathogen hijacking are the same genes that trigger food hypersensitivity.

In our opinion, there is no difference…either way you slice it, it’s an immune reaction against one’s own body.

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body’s immune system. In adults, the foods that most often trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may be mild. In rare cases, it can cause a severe.

Inflammation is the body’s first immune response to protect our body from harmful stimuli, such as pathogen infection, damaged cells, and irritants, such as food allergies.

Allergies occur when immunoglobulin E (IgE), part of the body’s immune system, binds to food molecules.

This triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine.

In the developed world, about 4% to 8% of people have at least one food allergy.

Although sensitivity levels vary by country, the most common food allergies are allergies to milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, seafood, shellfish, soy, and wheat. These are often referred to as “the big eight”.

Food allergies develop more easily in people with the atopic syndrome, a very common combination of diseases: allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, eczema, and asthma.

Pathophysiology

Conditions caused by food allergies are classified into three groups according to the mechanism of the allergic response:

IgE-mediated (classic) – the most common type, occurs shortly after eating and may involve anaphylaxis.

Non-IgE mediated – characterized by an immune response not involving immunoglobulin E; may occur some hours after eating, complicating diagnosis.

IgE and/or non-IgE-mediated – a hybrid of the above two types.

The Immune/Inflammatory Response

When immune cells encounter the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are produced; this is similar to the immune system’s reaction to foreign pathogens.

IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged.

IgE circulates in the blood and binds to an IgE-specific receptor (a kind of Fc receptor called FcεRI) on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are both involved in the acute inflammatory response.

Mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other inflammatory chemical mediators (cytokines, interleukins, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins) from their granules.

An Fc receptor is a protein that regulates IgE antibodies. Fc receptors bind to antibodies that are attached to infected cells or invading pathogens, or to food allergens.

There are several different types of Fc receptors (abbreviated FcR), which are classified based on the type of antibody that they recognize.

For example, those that bind the most common class of antibody, IgG, are called Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR).

Fc-epsilon receptors (IgE) – Food Allergy receptor

This receptor plays a major role in controlling allergic responses. FcεRI is also expressed on antigen-presenting cells and controls the production of important immune mediators called cytokines that promote inflammation.

The low-affinity receptor FcεRII (CD23) is a C-type lectin.

Proteins that contain C-type lectin domains have a diverse range of functions including cell-cell adhesion, immune response to pathogens and apoptosis.

Crosslinking of the FcεRI via IgE-antigen complexes leads to degranulation of mast cells or basophils and release of inflammatory mediators.

Fc epsilon RI plays a major role in controlling allergic responses. And it also regulates the release of important inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, interleukins, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins.

If Fc receptors control IgE, which regulates food allergy responses, then what controls FcεRI???

This is the million-dollar question…

The answer is Spleen Tyrosine Kinase, or SYK.

Syk binds with TLR4 and is activated by phosphorylation mainly at tyrosine residues, resulting in the transduction of stimulatory signals through the activation of various downstream signaling molecules.

Since Syk is one of the upstream signaling molecules, it orchestrates many downstream signaling molecules and amplifies inflammatory signals.

Therefore, Syk has been considered to play critical roles in inflammatory/allergic responses.

(See image) – Fc Epsilon RI Signaling Pathway

Basically, if we can regulate SYK then we can regulate IgE (Fc epsilon), which controls food hypersensitivity.

The Applications of Fc epsilon RI Signaling Pathway

When allergens enter into the human body through the respiratory tract, it stimulates the release of IL-4, which subsequently causes the production of IgE. As IgE increases, Fc epsilon RI/IgE signaling pathway is activated. Upon initiating of the signaling pathway, it will make human mast cells and basophils produce important immune mediators that mediates type I hypersensitivity diseases.

Therefore, Fc epsilon RI Signaling Pathway in the human will cause allergic diseases.

Now another important gene to regulate, aside from Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK), LCP2.

Lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (LCP2) is otherwise known as SLP-76.

SLP-76 plays a positive role in promoting T cell development and activation as well as mast cell and platelet function.

SLP-76 might serve as an integration point for signals by activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptors. In NK cells, SLP-76 can be phosphorylated by SYK or ZAP70.

SLP-76 is a substrate of the ZAP-70.

So…control SYK and ZAP70 and you can effectively target Food Allergies (IgE/Fc epsilon).

The ZAP70 gene provides instructions as part of a signaling pathway that directs the development of and turns on (activates) immune system cells called T cells. T cells identify foreign substances and defend the body against infection.

T cells promote protective immune responses against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria, but can also react to self-antigens and promote autoimmune diseases.

The ZAP70 gene is important for the development and function of several types of T cells. These include cytotoxic T cells (CD8+ T cells), whose functions include destroying cells infected by viruses.

The ZAP70 gene is also involved in the activation of helper T cells (CD4+ T cells). These cells direct and assist the functions of the immune system by influencing the activities of other immune system cells.

See: ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

When both SYK and ZAP70 do not function it equals an imbalance causing a release of cytokines (inflammation).

SYK INHIBITORS have been mentioned for BOTH ZAP70 and SYK (Spleen Tyrosine Kinase).

So SYK inhibitors may help the body regulate Food Allergy.

Discovery of a Natural Syk Inhibitor from Chinese Medicine

“This study demonstrated that tanshinone I is an Syk inhibitor”

Tanshinone I = Dan Shen

“Studies have shown that when stimulated through FcεRI, Syk-deficient mast cells cannot synthesize leukotrienes, secrete cytokines, or degranulate.”

“cryptotanshinone could inhibit IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation through the inhibition of tyrosine kinase-dependent degranulation signaling pathways involving Syk and Lyn.”

Cryptotanshinone = Dan Shen

“Therefore, seeking safe Syk small molecule inhibitors has attracted considerable interest in a number of therapeutic areas, including the treatment of allergic asthma, rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.”,

SYK is activated by C-type lectins and integrins, and activates novel targets including the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Ginger (6-Shogaol, 10-Gingerol, Eugenol) also helps modulate SYK.

Resveratrol also suppresses IgE–triggered phosphorylation of Syk.

Syk shows its roles in innate pathogen recognition. Recently, several studies have reported that Syk is a key molecule in the signaling pathways initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in terms of recognizing pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) and activating innate immune responses mediated by Syk is activated through the interaction with C-type lectin CLEC7A, which is a mammalian PRR for fungal β-glucans.

Therefore, β-glucans help to also regulate SYK through CLEC7A.

So far we have Dan Shen, Resveratrol, Ginger, and β-glucans that all help regulate Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK), which in turn regulate Fc receptors, which in turn regulates IgE response to hypersensitivity (allergies).

Syk activation leads to the subsequent activation of downstream signaling molecules, such as p85, AKT, IKK, PDK1, and NF-κB, resulting in the induction of expression of proinflammatory genes, such as TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS, and the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO and PGE2 in macrophages.

Since Syk activation induces inflammatory responses in macrophages, a number of previous studies have shown that Syk inhibition suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages.

Quercetin, a major bioflavonoid present in fruits and vegetables, also inhibits Syk activation, resulting in the suppression of inflammatory responses in macrophages.

Prunella vulgaris is known as a self-heal herb.

The analysis showed that the main active compounds in Self-Heal were phenols, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin, which inhibits SYK.

Now…DAP12 (TYROBP), which is an upstream signal cascade molecule of Syk, also is important to regulate in relation to all the aforementioned.

DAP12 may bind zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and play a role in signal transduction, bone modeling, brain myelination, and inflammation.

Among DAP12 it’s related pathways are the Innate Immune System.

The Innate Immune pathway is regulated by CEACAM1.

The antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily.

CEACAM1 was originally described in bile ducts of liver as biliary glycoprotein.

Multiple cellular activities have been attributed to the encoded protein, including roles in the differentiation and arrangement of tissue three-dimensional structure, angiogenesis, apoptosis, tumor suppression, metastasis, and the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses.

CEACAM1: contact-dependent control of immunity

(CEACAMs) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily known to be involved in intercellular homophilic and heterophilic binding interactions that affect a wide array of normal and pathogenic processes related to cellular activation, proliferation and death, as well as being receptors for pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

CEACAM1 binding by bacterial and viral adhesins inhibits immune-cell function, thereby providing a means by which these pathogens might suppress specific immune responses to infection.

CEACAM1 participates in immune regulation in physiological conditions and in pathological conditions, such as inflammation, autoimmune disease, and cancer.

CEACAM1 is specifically recognized by DC-SIGN.

DC-SIGN binds high-mannose residues.

Therefore, D-Mannose, through DC-Sign, helps regulate CEACAM1.

Mannose Receptor

Evidence strongly suggests that mannose receptors play a role in the clearance of pathogens.

The mannose receptor is known to bind to mannose- and fucose -containing microorganisms by carbohydrate recognition domains.

Fucose, or L-Fucose, may be found in fucodian/bladderwrack.

So D-Mannose and Bladderwrack work together to help regulate Mannose receptors, which in turn help regulate DC-Sign, which help regulate CEACAM1, which ultimately helps regulate FOOD ALLERGIES through SYK and ZAP70.

Immune/Inflammatory Modulation

Mannose receptors actively stimulate the release of secretory products including IL-1, TNFα and reactive oxygen intermediates.

To mitigate this impact we must reduce oxidative stress, inhibit IL-1, and inhibit TNFα.

The three most common inflammatory cytokines that are responsible for chronic inflammatory diseases are Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), Interleukin-1beta (IL-1b) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6).

TNF Inhibitors (The worst offender):

Glycyrrhizin (Licorice) Zinc – found in Shilajit Vinpocetine Folate – found in Sea Buckthorn Tanshinone IIA – found in Dan Shen Resveratrol

IL-1 Inhibitors:

Resveratrol Luteolin – found in Prunella Vulgaris. There are many active compounds in Prunella Vulgaris, including mainly triterpenes like ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and its saponins; flavonoids like rutin, quercetin, luteolin; phenolic acids like caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and its derivatives and polysaccharides.

More on Mannose

Mannose receptors bind to ligands containing mannose, fucose (bladderwrack), and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG).

N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)

There has been some concern that glucosamine products might cause allergic reactions in people who are sensitive to shellfish. Glucosamine is produced from the shells of shrimp, lobster, and crabs. But allergic reactions in people with shellfish allergy are caused by the meat of shellfish, not the shell. There are no reports of allergic reactions to glucosamine in people who are allergic to shellfish.

Soy

The soy listed in ReverseFX is derived from Nattokinase and Phosphatidylcholine (PC). Both have extremely beneficial impacts on health when properly balanced.

Nattokinase is rich in Spermidine. Spermidine synchronizes an array of biological processes (such as Ca2+, Na+, K+ -ATPase) thus maintaining membrane potential and controlling intracellular pH and volume.

Spermidine regulates biological processes, such as Ca2+ influx by glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor), which has been associated with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cGMP/PKG pathway activation and a decrease of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in cerebral cortex synaptosomes.

Spermidine is a longevity agent in mammals due to various mechanisms of action, which are just beginning to be understood.

Good dietary sources of spermidine are aged cheese, mushrooms, soy products, legumes, corn, and whole grains.

Spermidine is plentiful in a Mediterranean diet.

Milk

MCTs are fatty acids that occur naturally in coconut oil, palm oil, goat milk, and breast milk.

Mechanism of food allergy (FA) induction by medium chain triglycerides (MCT)

MCT ingestion, by itself, can induce shock by damaging intestinal epithelium, with a consequent increase in intestinal permeability.

But, again it’s IgE-mediated. (See above – Syk/ZAP70/DAP12).

ReverseFX® – The “Manna” From Heaven

https://reversefx.com/post/reversefx-the-manna-from-heaven

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Disclaimer: This is intended for education research. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The information provided on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other health care professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment. You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem. You are solely responsible for doing your own research on any information provided. This should not substitute professional advice. Individual results may vary. Database references herein are not all-inclusive. Getting well from reading or using the information contained herein is purely coincidental. Any and all products or services may be subject to change.

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